Author Contributions: Dr Jackevicius had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Jackevicius, Krumholz.
Acquisition of data: Jackevicius, Carreon, Krumholz.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Jackevicius, Tu, Ross, Ko, Carreon, Krumholz.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jackevicius.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jackevicius, Tu, Ross, Ko, Carreon, Krumholz.
Statistical analysis: Jackevicius, Carreon.
Obtained funding: Jackevicius, Krumholz.
Study supervision: Jackevicius.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Krumholz reported being the chair of the cardiac scientific advisory board for UnitedHealthCare and is under contract to develop performance measures for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. None of the other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This study was funded in part by the College of Pharmacy of Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, California, and in part by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research team grant in cardiovascular outcomes research awarded to the Canadian Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Team. Dr Tu is supported by a Canada Research Chair in Health Services Research and by a Career Investigator award of the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, Toronto. Dr Ross is currently supported by the National Institute on Aging grant K08 AG032886 and by the American Federation of Aging Research through the Paul B. Beeson Career Development Award Program. Dr Ko is supported by a new investigator award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Dr Krumholz is supported by grant U01-HL105270 (awarded to the Center for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research at Yale University) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences is supported by an operating grant from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Toronto.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors were not involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, or the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge IMS Health United States and IMS Health Canada for providing the data required for the analyses from the National Prescription Audit and the CompuScript Audit, respectively. We also acknowledge Janice Adelman, MSc, MA, PhD, of Claremont Graduate University, for assistance with data analysis. Dr Adelman was financially compensated for her contribution.