Author Contributions: Dr Pierce had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Pierce, Messer.
Acquisition of data: Pierce, Cowling.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Pierce, Messer, White, Thomas.
Drafting of the manuscript: Pierce, Messer, Thomas.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Pierce, Messer, White, Cowling, Thomas.
Statistical analysis: Messer, White.
Obtained funding: Pierce, Messer.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Pierce, Messer.
Study supervision: Pierce, Messer.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the University of California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program grants 18CA-0134, 18ST-0202, and 19ST-0181, and through gift money to the Moores UCSD Cancer Center from Carol Vassiliadis and family. During his time at UCSD, Dr Thomas reports being supported by the Australian National Heart Foundation Research Fellowship CR 09D 4712.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sponsors had no role in the design, protocol development, or in the conduct of the trial, data collection, data analysis, or manuscript preparation.