Advances in medical knowledge proceed on several fronts, optimally simultaneously. Each discipline provides unique, relevant, and complementary information to a totality of evidence. When the totality of evidence is sufficient, health care professionals can make the most rational decisions for individual patients and policy makers can make the most rational decisions for the health of the general public.1 When the totality of evidence is incomplete, it is appropriate to remain uncertain.2 Nonetheless, health care professionals and policy makers are always faced with decision making. Although medical researchers are likely to be familiar with these concepts, this commentary is primarily for clinicians and policy makers to increase their knowledge and understanding of the unique contributions of different types of evidence to the conclusion of a valid statistical association as well as the need to evaluate the totality of evidence to judge causality.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 18
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.