Author Contributions: Dr Jamal had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Jamal, Cummings.
Acquisition of data: Jamal, Hamilton.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Jamal, Hamilton, Eastell, Cummings.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jamal, Hamilton, Cummings.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jamal, Hamilton, Eastell, Cummings.
Statistical analysis: Jamal, Eastell.
Obtained funding: Jamal.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Jamal, Hamilton, Eastell.
Study supervision: Jamal, Cummings.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Jamal reported receiving support for board membership from Novartis, Amgen, and Warner-Chilcott and being a consultant for Genzyme, Warner-Chilcott, Novartis, and Shire. Dr Eastell reported being on the Procter & Gamble National Advisory Board; being a consultant for Amgen, AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, Medtronics, Nastech, Nestle, Fonterra Brands, Novartis, Ono Pharma, Osteologix, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, Sanofi Aventis, Tethys, Unilever, Unipath, and Inverness Medical; receiving grants from AstraZeneca, Unilever, Amgen, Department of Health NIHR, Procter & Gamble, Unipath Limited, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Osteologix, Medical Research Council UK, Arthritis Research Council, Crescent Diagnostics, Nittoboseki Company Limited, Nestle Foundation, Sanofi Aventis, and Organon Laboratories; receiving payment for lectures including service on speakers bureaus from Takeda, Eli Lilly, Amgen, National Osteoporosis Foundation, Procter & Gamble, GlaxoSmithKline Nutrition, and Roche; and receiving travel, accommodations, or meeting expenses from Novartis, Procter & Gamble, GlaxoSmithKline Nutrition, Fonterra Brands, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Medtronics, Unilever, Ono Pharma, Servier, Tethys, Eli Lilly, SPD, and International Osteoporosis Foundation. Dr Cummings reported being a consultant for Amgen, Eli Lilly, and Merck; giving expert testimony from Amgen and Eli Lilly; receiving grants from Eli Lilly and Amgen; and payment for lectures including service on speakers bureau from Amgen. Ms Hamilton reported no financial disclosures.
Funding/Support: The Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) and the Physicians' Services Incorporated funded the study. Dr Jamal received salary support from a CIHR New Investigator Award during the conduct of the study. Dr Eastell is funded by the National Institute of Health Research, England.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding sources did not play any role in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank Douglas Bauer, MD (Department of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California), Mary Bouxsein, PhD (Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School and Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts), Dennis Black, PhD (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California), Christopher Gordon, PhD (Department of Radiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada), Angela Rogers, PhD (Bone Biomedical Research Unit, funded by the National Institute of Health Research, England), and Lesley Beaumont, MLT, BA (McMaster University Medical Center and the Hamilton Health Sciences Center, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada), for their advice on an earlier version of the manuscript. None received compensation for their contribution.