Author Contributions: Dr Park-Wyllie and Ms Gunraj had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Park-Wyllie, Mamdani, Juurlink, Hawker, Laupacis
Acquisition of data: Gunraj, Park-Wyllie, Laupacis, Whelan, Weiler
Analysis and Interpretation of data: Park-Wyllie, Mamdani, Juurlink, Hawker, Gunraj, Austin, Whelan, Laupacis
Drafting of manuscript: Park-Wyllie
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Park-Wyllie, Mamdani, Juurlink, Gunraj, Hawker, Austin, Whelan, Weiler, Laupacis
Statistical analysis: Park-Wyllie, Mamdani, Juurlink, Austin
Obtained funding: Park-Wyllie, Laupacis, Mamdani, Juurlink
Administrative, technical, or material support: Gunraj, Whelan, Weiler
Study supervision: Laupacis, Mamdani, Juurlink
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported. Dr Mamdani reported that he has participated in paid advisory board meetings and received consulting fees from Novartis, Janssen-Ortho, Pfizer, and Boehringer Ingelheim. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Dr Park-Wyllie was supported by a Fellowship Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Dr Austin was supported by a Career Investigator Award from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario.
Role of Sponsor: The sponsor did not participate in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The opinions, results, and conclusions are those of the authors, and no endorsement by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care or by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences is intended or should be inferred.
Additional Contributions: We thank Tara Gomes for analytical assistance and Shabbir Alibhai MD, MSc, University Health Network, and Astrid Guttmann, MDCM, MSc, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, and Depeng Jiang, PhD, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnepeg for their helpful comments during the early design of our study, none of whom received compensation.