Ms D, a healthy 36-year old-woman, wishes to donate a kidney to her mother, who has diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Ms D has been evaluated as a donor at another medical center and was told to lose weight and quit smoking. Evidence from cohort studies suggests that live kidney donation is a safe procedure in the short and long terms, although donor follow-up studies have often had incomplete data on limited populations. The benefits of live donation are mostly for the recipient, but kidney donors often have improved quality of life as a result of both their generous act and the improved health of the recipient. Evaluation and eligibility of live kidney donors and their short- and long-term risks are discussed.