The kidneys filter blood, remove waste products, make hormones, and produce urine. The 2 kidneys drain via the ureters into the bladder where the urine is stored. In persons with end-stage renal (kidney) disease (also called chronic renal failure), renal dialysis (use of a machine to substitute for the kidney in removing waste products) or kidney transplantation are the treatment options. A successfully transplanted kidney works as a person's own healthy kidney would. This means that the individual no longer needs dialysis and may reduce or eliminate need for some medications. Not every person with renal failure is a candidate for a kidney transplant, so treatment options should be discussed with your doctor. The February 9, 2011, issue of JAMA includes an article about kidney transplantation. This Patient Page is based on one published in the April 22/29, 2009, issue of JAMA.