Author Contributions: Dr Agwu had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Agwu, Jang, Korthuis, Araneta, Gebo.
Acquisition of data: Jang, Korthuis, Araneta, Gebo.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Agwu, Jang, Korthuis, Araneta, Gebo.
Drafting of the manuscript: Agwu, Jang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Agwu, Korthuis, Araneta, Gebo.
Statistical analysis: Agwu, Jang, Araneta.
Obtained funding: Gebo.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Gebo.
Study supervision: Agwu, Gebo.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Gebo reported having consulted, having served on a scientific advisory board, and having received research funding from Tibotec. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (290-01-0012) and the National Institute on Aging (R01 AG026250) (K.A.G.). Dr Agwu was supported by the National Center for Research Resources (NCCR), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research (1KL2RR025006-01), and by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1K23AI084549). Dr Jang was supported by a grant from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation to Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr Korthuis was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (K23-DA019809).
Role of the Sponsors: The funding agencies had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Participating Sites: Alameda County Medical Center, Oakland, California (Howard Edelstein, MD); Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Richard Rutstein, MD); Community Health Network, Rochester, New York (Roberto Corales, DO); Drexel University, Philadelphia (Jeffrey Jacobson, MD; Sara Allen, CRNP); Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Kelly Gebo, MD; Richard Moore, MD; Allison Agwu, MD); Montefiore Medical Group, Bronx, New York (Robert Beil, MD; Carolyn Chu, MD); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx (Lawrence Hanau, MD); Nemechek Health Renewal, Kansas City, Missouri (Patrick Nemechek, MD); Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (P. Todd Korthuis, MD); Parkland Health and Hospital System, Dallas, Texas (Gary Sinclair, MD; Laura Armas-Kolostroubis, MD); St Jude's Children's Hospital and University of Tennessee, Memphis (Aditya Gaur, MD); St Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, New York (Victoria Sharp, MD); Tampa General Health Care, Tampa, Florida (Charurut Somboonwit, MD); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (Stephen Spector, MD); University of California, San Diego (W. Christopher Mathews, MD); Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (Jonathan Cohn, MD).
Sponsoring Agencies: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Maryland (Fred Hellinger, PhD; John Fleishman, PhD; Irene Fraser, PhD); Health Resources and Services Administration, Rockville (Robert Mills, PhD).
Data Coordinating Center: Johns Hopkins University (Richard Moore, MD; Jeanne Keruly, CRNP; Kelly Gebo, MD; Cindy Voss, MA; Bonnie Cameron, MS).
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors. No official endorsement by the AHRQ or NCCR is intended or should be inferred.
Additional Contributions: We would like to acknowledge Robert Warford, PA, St Luke’s-Roosevelt, for his diligence in verifying the data from his site and John Fleishman, PhD, AHRQ, for his careful review of the manuscript. Neither received compensation for the contributions.