Author Contributions: Dr Xian had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Xian, Holloway, Friedman.
Acquisition of data: Xian, Friedman.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Xian, Holloway, Chan, Noyes, Shah, Ting, Chappel, Peterson, Friedman.
Drafting of the manuscript: Xian, Chan.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Xian, Holloway, Chan, Noyes, Shah, Ting, Chappel, Peterson, Friedman.
Statistical analysis: Xian.
Obtained funding: Xian, Holloway, Friedman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Xian, Holloway, Friedman.
Study supervision: Xian, Holloway, Noyes, Shah, Friedman.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Holloway reported being a consultant for Milliman Guidelines, reviewing neurology guidelines. Dr Peterson reported receiving research grants from Schering Plough, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck/Schering Plough, Sanofi Aventis, and Saint Judes and being a consultant/advisory board member to Pfizer and Bayer Corp. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded in part by a predoctoral fellowship 0815772D from the American Heart Association (AHA) Founders Affiliate (Dr Xian). This study received infrastructure support from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (U18HS016964). Dr Chan is supported by a Career Development Grant Award (K23HL102224) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Dr Shah is supported by the Paul B. Beeson Career Development Award (National Institute on Aging 1K23AG028942).
Role of the Sponsors: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the AHA and AHRQ. This study used a linked SPARCS-SSADMF database. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors. Dr Peterson, a contributing editor for JAMA, was not involved in the editorial review of or the decision to publish this article.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented in part at the 2010 American Heart Association Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Conference; Washington, DC; May 20, 2010.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the insightful contributions of Laine Thomas, PhD; Wenqin Pan, PhD; and Margueritte Cox, MS (Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina), for assistance with statistical analyses and geomapping. We thank Zainab Magdon-Ismail, EdM, MPH (American Heart Association, Founders Affiliate); Toby I. Gropen, MD (Long Island College Hospital, New York); Nancy R. Barhydt, DrPH, RN; and Anna Colello, Esq (New York State Department of Health), for assistance with data. None were compensated for their contributions.