0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |

Notes From the Field: Transplant-Transmitted Balamuthia mandrillaris—Arizona, 2010 FREE

JAMA. 2011;305(3):249. doi:.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

MMWR. 2010;59:1182

On August 23, 2010, CDC was notified regarding two organ transplant recipients in Arizona who had encephalitis with multiple ring-enhancing lesions revealed by cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. The common organ donor, a Hispanic male landscaper aged 27 years, had died in Arizona from a presumed stroke on July 21. He had a large skin lesion for approximately 6 months on his back that he had attributed to an insect bite. The ill recipients, a male liver recipient aged 56 years, and a male recipient of a kidney and pancreas aged 24 years, received organ transplants on July 22. In addition, two other recipients received organs from this donor: an adult male heart recipient received his transplant in California on July 22, and an adult male kidney recipient received his transplant in Utah on July 23.

On August 8, the liver recipient had onset of diplopia and difficulty walking; he was hospitalized on August 9 and died on August 17. The kidney-pancreas recipient had onset of headache, nausea, and vomiting on August 15 and was hospitalized the same day. A brain biopsy, performed on August 23, demonstrated amebic encephalitis on histopathologic examination; empiric therapy was initiated on August 24. On August 26, Balamuthiamandrillaris antigens were identified in the brain biopsy from the kidney-pancreas recipient and in postmortem brain and liver tissue from the liver recipient, using immunohistochemical staining. B.mandrillaris DNA was detected in the brain tissue from both patients by real-time polymerase chain reaction on August 27. The kidney-pancreas recipient died on August 30. The heart and kidney recipients, who have been asymptomatic, were placed on preemptive therapy on August 26.

This is the second confirmed cluster of transplant-transmitted Balamuthia granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). The first occurred in 2009 in two recipients of kidneys from a common donor.1Balamuthia GAE is a rare and frequently fatal disease caused by B. mandrillaris, a free-living ameba found in soil.2,3 Persons of Hispanic ethnicity might be disproportionately affected.2,3 Patients can have skin lesions months to years before having encephalitis symptoms. No optimal treatment has been identified; among patients treated with combination antimicrobial therapy, few have survived.13 Amebic encephalitis might be more common than previously thought and underdiagnosed among organ donors with encephalitis of uncertain etiology or other neurologic conditions.*

REPORTED BY:

Arizona Dept of Health Svcs. Div of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Div of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Div of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases; Div of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health; C Mbaeyi, BDS, EIS Officer, CDC.

*Additional information available at http://www.cdc.gov/balamuthia.

REFERENCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  Balamuthia mandrillaris transmitted through organ transplantation—Mississippi, 2009.  MMWR. 2010;59(36):1165-1170
PubMed
Schuster FL, Visvesvara GS. Balamuthia mandrillaris. In: Khan NA, ed. Emerging protozoan pathogens. London, England: Taylor and Francis Group; 2008:71-118
Schuster FL, Yagi S, Gavali S,  et al.  Under the radar: balamuthia amebic encephalitis.  Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(7):879-887
PubMed   |  Link to Article

Figures

Tables

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  Balamuthia mandrillaris transmitted through organ transplantation—Mississippi, 2009.  MMWR. 2010;59(36):1165-1170
PubMed
Schuster FL, Visvesvara GS. Balamuthia mandrillaris. In: Khan NA, ed. Emerging protozoan pathogens. London, England: Taylor and Francis Group; 2008:71-118
Schuster FL, Yagi S, Gavali S,  et al.  Under the radar: balamuthia amebic encephalitis.  Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(7):879-887
PubMed   |  Link to Article

Letters

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles