Civil society–led movements transformed global AIDS action from deep skepticism about extending antiretroviral (ARV) treatment in low- and middle-income countries to a historic scaling up of treatment toward universal access. During its first phase (2003-2008), the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)—the largest national commitment to combat a single disease—supported treatment for more than 2 million people, care for more than 10 million people, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission in 16 million pregnancies.1 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund), a unique international financing institution, has committed $19.3 billion in 144 countries to support large-scale prevention, treatment, and care, with most resources devoted to AIDS treatment.2
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