Author Contributions: Dr Al-Khatib had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Al-Khatib, Hammill.
Acquisition of data: Al-Khatib, Peterson, Hernandez, Hammill.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Al-Khatib, Hellkamp, J. Curtis, Mark, Peterson, Sanders, Heidenreich, Hernandez, L. Curtis, Hammill.
Drafting of the manuscript: Al-Khatib, Hellkamp.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: J. Curtis, Mark, Peterson, Sanders, Heidenreich, Hernandez, L. Curtis, Hammill.
Statistical analysis: Hellkamp.
Obtained funding: Al-Khatib, Peterson.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hernandez, Hammill.
Study supervision: Mark, Sanders, Hammill.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Al-Khatib reported receiving research support and honoraria for presentations from Medtronic and Biotronik. Dr J. Curtis reported owning stock in Medtronic and receiving salary support from the American College of Cardiology. Dr Mark reported having consulted for Novartis and Sanofi-Aventis and receiving research grants from Eli Lilly & Company, Proctor and Gamble, Pfizer, Medtronic, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Medicure, Innocoll, and St Judes Medical. Dr Sanders reported receiving research support from Medtronic. Dr Heidenreich reported receiving research support from Medtronic and consultancy fees from Boston Scientific. Dr Hernandez reported receiving research support from Johnson & Johnson, Medtronic, and Merck & Co; serving on the speakers' bureau for Novartis; and receiving honoraria from Amgen, AstraZeneca, and Medtronic. Dr L. Curtis reported receiving research and salary support from Allergan Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline, Medtronic, OSI Eyetech, and Sanofi-Aventis (a detailed listing of her financial disclosures is available at https://www.dcri.org/about-us/conflict-of-interest/Curtis-COI.pdf). None of the other authors reported financial disclosures.
Funding/Support: This analysis was funded by grant 1R01-HL093071-01A1 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Role of the Sponsors: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute had no role in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimers: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Dr Peterson, a JAMA contributing editor, was not involved in the editorial review of or decision to publish this article.
Previous Presentations: Results of this analysis were presented as an abstract at the Heart Rhythm Society 31st Annual Scientific Sessions; May 2010; Denver, Colorado.