Surgery of the kidney is practically of recent date, although during the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the practicability of nephrectomy had been discussed and Zabbeccarius, in 1670, and Roonhuyzen, in 1672, had proved by experiments on animals that one kidney could do the work of both. It may fairly be stated that Simon's successful nephrectomy in 1869, though done in an emergency and for an indication not now recognized, marks the beginning of the surgical treatment of this very important organ.
Surgery of the ureter was the logical sequence to renal surgery. Yet, strangely enough, Gigon1 had thirteen years previously published a case of calculous anuria, recommending and carefully describing the technique of ureterectomy—called by him "ureterotemnie," and practically followed years later by Le Dentu and Pozzi.
The interest in this subject has not lagged, and at the present time nephrectomy for injuries and diseases of the ureter