The investigations here reported were undertaken by the writers on the suggestion and with the constant aid and direction of Dr.Howard A. Kelly, of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, to whom they take pleasure in acknowledging their indebtedness.
How little is really known about the bladder is found on a cursory reading of the surgical text-books, containing their meager and contradictory statements. The measurements and capacity of the female bladder given in the text-books have been determined by post-mortem examination, by urine—or other fluid—distension to discomfort, and by other inexact methods that have given imperfect and often contradictory results.
The methods employed by the writers in their investigation differ from those heretofore employed in essential and important respects. 1. All measurements have been made on living women with the bladder either perfectly healthy—most cases—or so slightly disturbed from the normal as not to affect the accuracy of the results. 2. All