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EXSTROPHY OF THE BLADDER.

F. GREGORY CONNELL, M.D.
JAMA. 1901;XXXVI(10):637-668. doi:10.1001/jama.1901.02470100029003.
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[Awarded Senn Medal at the Fifty-First Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association, June 6, 1900. Received by the Committee, March, 1, 1900.]

EMBRYOLOGY.  Before considering a congenital deformity of the bladder, it will be advisable to review briefly the embryological development of the genito-urinary system, and, of necessity, the embryo as a whole.The ovum, a single cell with a single nucleus, soon after impregnation becomes, by karyokinesis, a mass of cells resembling in shape and appearance a mulberry, hence the name, morula. A clear fluid next accumulates in the center of this mass of cells; at first small, but gradually increasing in amount. Thus, the morula is converted into a globular vesicle, termed the blastodermic vesicle, the wall of which is at first composed of a single layer of cells—ectodermal, but later, a second layer of cells—entodermal—is completed. This double layer of cells is termed the blastoderm. The

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