"We owe to the Italians not only the name but also much of our knowledge of malaria." Thus Dr. Patrick Manson begins his Introduction to the work, and one of the most eminent of these Italian students of the epidemiology of paludism is Professor Celli. Dr. Manson further says: "I saw the peasants whose sordid lives he describes so graphically, and I saw in operation the economic system which, together with malaria, has reduced these wretched people to what is practically a position of slavery."
In the chapter on the history of malaria the author dwells upon the drainage system, the cloacæ and aqueducts of the early Romans, and shows how they had maintained a sanitary city, although surrounded by a deadly malarial zone. Many passages from the ancient Latin writers—Horace, Pliny, etc.,— are quoted, and show the dread with which the surrounding Campagna was regarded at that time. Later,