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ONE HUNDRED CASES OF ASTIGMATISM CONTRARY TO THE RULE, AND THE ASSOCIATED SYMPTOMS.

G. E. DE SCHWEINITZ, M.D. (UNIV. OF PENN.)
JAMA. 1891;XVII(10):359-373. doi:10.1001/jama.1891.02410880007001b.
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Ever since the days when Weir Mitchell called attention to the intimate connection between a variety of headaches and the existence of errors of refraction, before which time this close association had not received at the hands of neurologists extensive study, the literature of ophthalmology and neurology has been burdened with numerous communications upon this relationship, until now the investigation of a case of headache is not complete until the refraction of the eye and the balance of the ocular muscles have been carefully considered. All forms of refraction error are known to be the cause of headaches, and usually it is considered that the presence of astigmatism, either of the simple or compound type, aggravates the amount of the head-pain. It has been stated that when the astigmatism is contrary to the rule, the entire correction of the error is more absolutely necessary to bring relief, and that its

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