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JAMA. 1902;XXXIX(16):968-972. doi:10.1001/jama.1902.52480420020001e.
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In response to the suggestion of our Chairman, this paper has been so written as to review in the simplest possible manner our knowledge of the physiology of the ocular muscles, and many things more or less connected with the subject have been advisedly omitted as nonessential. Two facts should be borne in mind in connection with the reading of this paper: first, that the action of the muscles on normal eyes alone is considered, the disturbing and modifying influences of errors of refraction and abnormalities of the muscles themselves and their attachments, properly belonging to a study of their pathology and not of their physiology; secondly, all muscles are to be considered as moving the normal eye from the primary position.

THE MOTIONS OF THE EYEBALL.  The eyeball is endowed with unusual freedom of motion, for the accomplishment of which it is supplied with six muscles arising from the


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