We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

ON THE DETERMINATION OF ASTIGMATISM WITH THE OPHTHAL-MOMETER (JAVAL-SCHIOTZ).Read in the Section of Ophthalmology, at the Fort-first Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association, Nashville, Tenn, May, 1890.

JAMA. 1890;XV(11):380-383. doi:10.1001/jama.1890.02410370004001a.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


It is almost a century since the great English philospher, Thomas Young, discovered in his own eye an error of refraction due to different refraction of different meridians. For half a century the knowledge thus obtained did not influence the practice of prescribing glasses. It was almost exclusively astronomers, scientists and physiologists, like Young,Airy,Stokes,Fick and others who studied this asymetry of refraction in their own eyes, measured it and tried to correct it. The first to have used cylindric glasses to this end was Airy. A new impetus was given to the study of this imperfection of the human eye by the invention of Helmholtz's ophthalmometer. With the aid of this perfect instrument, invented to determine the curvature of different surfaces, Helmholtz, Donders and their pupils, as Knapp, Woinow, Middelburgh, Mauthner, etc., studied in all directions the dioptric system of the eye. Fundamental points were


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.