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Strabismus, or Squint, Latent and Fixed. A Supplement to the Errors of Refraction.

JAMA. 1904;XLIII(25):1886. doi:10.1001/jama.1904.02500250056029.
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While we agree with Edward Jackson that much ink and paper have been wasted in vain attempts to elucidate the many problems that arise in connection with oculo-muscular anomalies and that much of the literature of heterotropia is valueless, it is a praiseworthy task to have stated, as Dr. Valk has done, the principal facts, theories and hypotheses that constitute our present knowledge of squint. Dr. Valk has done some original work in this department of ophthalmic surgery, a fact that gives him a special claim to speak with authority. We agree with him in always preferring, in heterotropia or heterophoria, either shortening or advancement, with or without tenotomy, to tenotomy alone. The various "tucking" operations, however, do not, in our judgement, have a place in ophthalmic surgery, i. e., there does not appear to be a muscular anomaly requiring operative interference whose readjustment can not be more successfully and


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