The successful treatment of Shaffer's foot, invariably, and of flatfoot, frequently, depends on the elongation of the gastrocnemius muscle. Compensation in the former condition, by means of a higher heeled shoe, and splinting the deformed foot with steel arches, in the latter condition, are measures which generally give relief, but of themselves are not curative.
An active foot, with limitation of dorsal flexion, must suffer from the alteration of its mechanics. The changed disposition of the superincumbent weight and the abnormal points of resistance due to the restricted movements of the lever-arms, must, inevitably, cause such disturbances as result from pressure, i. e., corns, bunions, callosities, "ingrowing toe-nails" and Morton's toe and an alteration, or a tendency to an alteration, in the relations of the tarsal bones. Whether the foot becomes what is known as flat, or presents a higher arch than formerly, depends on the amount of limitation of