Specialists, and a gradually increasing number of the profession, regard cystoscopy as a diagnostic measure of merit. A multiplicity of instruments and variety of technic have contributed not a little to a feeling of distrust and reluctance to accept it by the profession at large.
Of the many kinds of cystoscopes most of them have been devised or modified by the pioneers in genito-urinary diagnosis. In the hands of its originator probably each instrument is a success, but in the hands of a stranger many are more or less of a failure.
Water dilatation of the bladder seems the rational method. The difficulty or impossibility of examining an occasional bladder, from blood or pus clouding the inflating fluid, led to the devising of instruments to be used with air dilatation. Air in the bladder is a foreign body and by the conscious patient is treated as such. Frequent sponging to remove urine or blood is provocative of further hemorrhage and increases the difficulties.