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ETIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSIS OF GASTRIC AND DUODENAL ULCER.

FRANK BILLINGS, M.D.
JAMA. 1906;XLVII(11):840-842. doi:10.1001/jama.1906.25210110024002e.
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ABSTRACT

Acute gastric ulcer and the so-called abrasions of the mucous membrane of the stomach are identical in their morbid anatomy and pathology. As a rule these are superficial and extend wholly or through a part only of the mucosa. They are not uncommon and many occur in chronic circulatory disturbances due to heart and arterial disease and to cirrhosis of the liver. They may be postoperative events, especially in abdominal section. They appear in cachectic states due to chronic diseases and are not infrequent in the new born. They may appear in certain neurotic conditions, especially in women.

These acute erosions are soft, sometimes blood stained, often multiple, frequently consist of mere slits in the mucous membrane, may be so small as to escape detection and usually would not exceed 4 mm. in diameter. The largest may be dignified by the name of an ulcer. These acute processes are important

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