For fifty years we have known that drinking water is the chief vehicle of typhoid infection, and this knowledge has enabled great cities to make measurably effective defense against typhoid fever. For more than twenty years it has been known that the whole problem of preventing typhoid fever lay in the disposal of typhoid dejecta. Knowing so much, it would seem that typhoid fever might have long since been reduced to insignificance as a cause of death. But the bad eminence of the disease is as conspicuous to-day as it was twenty years ago.
In the grewsome story of typhoid among the United States troops during the Spanish-American War, we were confronted by a fact so humiliating that the profession has not yet had courage to consider fully its great significance. We learned that of every one hundred cases of typhoid fever sent to division hospitals, one-half had escaped the