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Herman L. Kretschmer, M.D.
JAMA. 1914;LXII(18):1399. doi:10.1001/jama.1914.25610430002015a.
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The removal, under the guidance of the eye, of foreign bodies from the urinary bladder in women, is quite simple, because the short, easily dilatable urethra allows the introduction of a forceps alongside of the cystoscope.

In the male, however, this problem is a more difficult one. Heretofore, I have resorted to the use of Young's cystoscopic rongeur. Soon, however, the biting edge of this instrument becomes dull and full of nicks, and it is apparent that some modification is necessary in order to employ it for the above-mentioned purpose.

Instead of the light, thin blades with the sharp-cutting edge, I have had constructed heavy blades, with corrugated surfaces. The blades are heavy and strong, so that they are capable of holding small calculi which have passed down the ureter into the bladder. The instrument can also be used for removing small or large fragments of calculi remaining in the


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