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ARTICLE |

THE CARDIAC EFFECTS OF IMMODERATE COLLEGE ATHLETICS

LEOPOLD SHUMACKER, M.D.; WILLIAM S. MIDDLETON, M.D.
JAMA. 1914;LXII(15):1136-1144. doi:10.1001/jama.1914.02560400004002.
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The frequency of cardiac lesions among the men participating in competitive sports at the University of Wisconsin has emphasized the urgency for a study of this subject from a clinical point of view. From this aspect it may be divided into three parts: first, the immediate effects of severe muscular strain on the heart; second, the effects of training and a series of severe athletic contests on the heart, and, third, the ultimate effects on the subsequent life of an individual of alterations brought about in the heart through athletic contests in early life.

Recent medical literature has been rich in the study of the immediate effects on the heart of severe prolonged muscular exertion.1 From the physiologic point of view the results of the various investigations in this field coincide sufficiently to make it possible to draw the following rather definite conclusions:

  1. Muscular exercise sufficient to cause an

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