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THE VOLUNTARY AND INVOLUNTARY BRAIN CENTERS CONTROLLING THE OCULAR MUSCLES.

G. C. SAVAGE, M.D.
JAMA. 1903;XLI(20):1185-1188. doi:10.1001/jama.1903.92490390009001b.
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There are two groups of brain centers for controlling the movements of the eyes. One group is found in the cortex, and consists of nine distinct centers. In this group are two more centers, making eleven in all, but these two are connected with muscles within the eye, viz. : the Müller muscle in the ciliary body and the sphincter of the iris, and will not be specifically studied in this paper. The second group is located at the base of the brain, and consists of twelve distinct centers. In this group are four more centers, making sixteen in all, but these four are connected with the muscles within the globe already mentioned, hence they will be passed without further mention.

THE CORTICAL GROUP.  Experimentation and pathology both have given evidence of the existence of the cortical centers. Experimenters on the lower animals have not yet found

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