With the increasing practice in the primary grades of. the public schools of America of teaching children to read without teaching them the alphabet, the ophthalmologist is confronted with new difficulties in estimating the vision of young children who are brought to him for suspected refractive errors.
During recent years a number of object test-cards have been devised, each one having its own peculiar value. At the time they were introduced their main purpose was to give some idea of the vision in the eyes of very young children with strabismus. This will remain the chief function of all such cards for some time to come, as the three vital facts to be learned in every case of strabismus are the vision, the degree of deviation and the refractive status. Without some idea of the vision in each eye of the young strabismic children (3 to 6 years old), no