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RETINOSCOPY AS A CRUCIAL TEST IN MEASURING ERRORS OF REFRACTION.Read in the Section on Ophthalmology, at the Forty-flfth Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association, held at San Francisco. June 5-8, 1894.

JAMA. 1894;XXIII(9):340-341. doi:10.1001/jama.1894.02421140014002b.
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Except in the early-demonstrated value of retinoscopy in the recognition of conical cornea, as set forth by Bowman, the claims for the method seemed decidedly exaggerated by Cuignet and other early advocates; and my study of it (as practiced with the concave mirror) affording no prospect of large usefulness, I dropped it'almost entirely. In the spring of 1884, however, I began to employ the plane mirror in the test, and have ever since held it to be the most delicate objective test in measuring the refraction and its anomalies. Believing it to be unequalled in certain respects by any other procedure, I desire here to define the limits within which I particularly value it; and this the more, as I believe I differ from the general practice.

In my routine examination of a patient, retinoscopy follows the subjective tests for far and near of the vision and muscle balance. In


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