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REPORT ON THE VALUE OF OBJECTIVE TESTS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AMETROPIA, OPHTHALMOSCOPY, OPHTHALMOMETRY, SKIASCOPY.By the Special Committee of the Section on Ophthalmology of the American Medical Association.

Edward Jackson Chairman, M.D.; S. M. Burnett, M.D.; H. V. Würdemann, M.D.; J. A. Thomson, M.D.
JAMA. 1894;XXIII(9):337-339. doi:10.1001/jama.1894.02421140011002a.
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The members of your committee are all in accord with the view held by most ophthalmologists that the objective methods of determining ametropia can not entirely replace the subjective method with test letters and trial glasses; and that, in so far as the subjective method is applicable, it may be regarded as a court of last resort. Determinations of the refraction by the various objective methods, however, constitute an essential portion of the complete examination of any eye. They are essential parts of the whole, and no examination is complete without their use. The subjective method can no more fill the whole bill than can anyone of the objective methods alone. All should be used in every case to avoid errors common to each. Although it is obvious that if the various measurements of a definite quantity are accurate, by whatever means they are made, they will agree.

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