JAMA. 1915;LXV(2):171-172. doi:10.1001/jama.1915.02580020037017.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

In a review of the scientific features in the development of modern surgery, Lee1 has written:

With the discovery of practicable anesthetics, the battle was only half won. The operation itself had lost much of its horror, but the tragedy of the subsequent days was unchanged. There were the almost inevitable suppuration of the wound, the putrefaction and sloughing off of tissue, the sickening odor, the high fever, the danger of hemorrhage, the slow healing, the complications of blood poisoning, erysipelas, gangrene and tetanus, the physical and mental anguish, and the uncertainty of the final outcome. The mortality from major operations was from 50 to 100 per cent.

Today, on the contrary, the opening of the abdomen, the chest or the skull no longer is equivalent to signing the death warrant of the patient. Pasteur proved that fermentation and putrefaction were neither spontaneous, on the one hand, nor due to


Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview




Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.