By presenting this illustration of renal abnormality found by Dr. Charles H. Parkes, demonstrator in the Department of Operative Surgery and Anatomy at the Chicago Policlinic Laboratory, I wish to call attention to the uncertainties, even after accurate ureteral catheterization (unless x-ray pictures are taken with catheter in situ or a double exploratory incision) in surgical procedures on the kidneys. A study of this illustration, which is remarkably accurate, will show the clinical possibilities.
Due to some congenital misarrangement, the right kidney is transposed to the left side. The blood vessels to this kidney, however, arise as though it were properly placed, from the normal level and side of the aorta and vena cava. The ureter enters the bladder normally at the right side of the trigon after crossing the posterior abdominal wall at the level of the fifth vertebra.
The left kidney is normally located, except that, if the