R. E. Farr, M.D.
JAMA. 1915;LXIV(21):1753. doi:10.1001/jama.1915.25710470001013.
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This instrument is designed for the purpose of reducing and holding reduced the fragments of a fractured bone, when the open treatment is indicated, while one of the various forms of fixation methods is applied.

It consists of two pairs of long-handled forceps (Fig. 1), with two ratchets which work in planes at right angles to each other. The technic of application is the following:

After the point of fracture is freed, one clamp is placed on each fragment at right angles to its long axis and at points which will allow the forceps to be locked together with the clasp C (Fig. 2). The only other requirement before locking the forceps together is that the fragments be held parallel to each other or nearly so. Providing there is overriding, which is usually the case, the ratchet at D (Fig. 2), is worked to and fro until the shortening is


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