Disorders of pituitary metabolism may be due to disturbances of the gland itself, organic or functional, as tumors, hyperplasia, hypoplasia, etc., or such changes may be the result of remote factors, such as distant tumors pressing on the gland, and hydrocephalus. In severe hydrocephalus, the third as well as the other ventricles is distended with fluid; it becomes cystic, bulges, and presses on the underlying pituitary gland.
The disturbance of pituitary function resulting from hydrocephalus may manifest itself in two conditions, hyperpituitarism (Neurath, Cushing, Oppenheim), or in hypopituitarism. In view of the frequency of dyspituitarism in chronic hydrocephalus, the literature on the subject is astonishingly scarce.
Marinesco and M. Goldstein,1 in December, 1909, and Kurt Goldstein,2 in 1910, described the clinical picture of pituitary body disease as an accompaniment of hydrocephalus. Kurt Goldstein calls attention to the fact that changes in the sella turcica have been noted in