An operative technic which gives a low mortality may be far from perfection, especially when relief is not obtained by the patient from the trouble for which the operation was done, or when other calamities must be endured by the patient which are a direct result of the operation.
In no class of operative procedures for non-malignant conditions are secondary operations required in so large a percentage as in those done on the gall-tracts. In no class of abdominal work is the temptation greater for inefficient or incomplete work, and in none is complete work more difficult than that encountered in many of these cases. Stones in the common duct, at or near the lower end, are found and removed successfully by only a very few operators. The amateur aspirant to surgical honors and perquisites can safely drain a large readily accessible gall-bladder, and if perchance he find a stone,