Plastic or reconstructive surgery has made many advances since its revival in the first half of the nineteenth century by Dieffenbach and his followers in Europe and Muetter and his contemporaries in America. These surgeons were probably preceded many centuries ago in plastic work, for the Egyptian papyrus named after Ebers and attributed to 1500 B. C. is said to mention rhinoplasty performed by flaps. The Hindu specialists made new noses from the frontal tissues before the time of Taliacotius in Italy. They replaced the cartilaginous portion, cut off as a punishment for adultery or for other reasons, by a cellular-cutaneous flap turned down from the forehead. Taliacotius in the sixteenth century made noses and lips from the tissues of the arm. He thus improved the features of European victims of nasal deformity, resulting from misfortune in war or by disease, many years before the time of Dieffenbach.