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PRACTICAL IMPORTANCE OF HYPERPHORIA:  IN PRESCRIBING LENSES FOR USE AT PARTICULAR DISTANCES AND IN DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS

M. D. STEVENSON, M.D.
JAMA. 1909;LIII(3):203-206. doi:10.1001/jama.1909.92550030007002i.
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ABSTRACT

Hyperphoria, when the head is in the primary position and the test object on the line of intersection of the extended median and horizontal fixed planes of the head (Savage), has received considerable attention by many able investigators. This paper will deal more particularly with hyperphoria at the reading distance and at the reading angle. The prescribing of prisms to correct hyperphoria is of great importance. The correction of 1 degree of hyperphoria, constant at a series of examinations, will give in the average case better results than the prism correction of a very much greater degree of exophoria or esophoria. Normal eye muscles have difficulty in overcoming a 3.5 degree prism base up or down, while adducting power of 50 grees is often found. Normal eyes have vertical equilibrium. If a series of examinations shows 0.5 degree of hyperphoria, decentering of the lens or the introduction

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