Prefatory to any discussion of our ten years' sanitary campaign in the Philippine Islands, it is necessary to touch on the condition of affairs existent at the time of the arrival on the scene of American sanitary administrators.
CONDITIONS PRIOR TO AMERICAN OCCUPATION
At the time of the fall of Manila, Aug. 13, 1898, it is safe to say that the sanitary situation in that city was as bad as any ever maintained by a civilized nation. Not only was the condition that which would result from years of crowded habitation by a wandering and, to a large extent, ignorant people in a tropical environment, but a large amount of the sanitary work which had been done by our predecessors was of negligible value or of extremely temporary character.Successful municipal sanitation, like successful municipal commerce or any other large community enterprise, depends on a few essentials. The chief of