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John M. Batten
JAMA. 1886;VI(4):109-110. doi:10.1001/jama.1886.04250010117011.
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Dear Sir:  —The fact that rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and bronchitis or so-called catarrh are caused by micro-organisms and not by cold, was forcibly impressed on my mind about two weeks ago. For the last month there has been a great deal of wet weather in Pittsburgh, and this, together with the fact that many of the streets of the city have been dug up for the purpose of laying gas and water pipes, setting free these micro-organisms, which, as I believe, have been the cause of a sort of endemic of catarrh which has been prevailing here for the last month. These micro-organisms seem to have found their favorite lodgment in the mucous membrane of the nose, pharynx, larynx or lungs, thereby causing the numerous cases of catarrh which have been prevailing in our vicinity recently.The fact that quinine taken internally in 5-grain doses has been the most effectual


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