We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Effectiveness of Bicycle Safety Helmets in Preventing Serious Facial Injury

Diane C. Thompson, MS; Martha E. Nunn, DDS, MS; Robert S. Thompson, MD; Frederick P. Rivara, MD, MPH
JAMA. 1996;276(24):1974-1975. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03540240052030.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objective.  —To assess the effectiveness of helmets in preventing facial injuries.

Design.  —Case-control study between March 1, 1992, and August 31, 1994.

Setting.  —Seven Seattle, Wash, area hospitals including the regional trauma center and a large staff-model health maintenance organization.

Patients.  —Cases were patients with serious facial injury, ie, fractures or lacerations; controls were patients who had injuries other than facial. Minor facial injuries were excluded to avoid ascertainment bias in those seeking care for serious injuries to other areas.

Results.  —Serious facial injuries occurred to 700 (20.7%) patients. Helmets were used by 47% of cases and 57% of controls. After adjusting for age, sex, speed, and surface, we found that helmets reduced the risk of injury to the upper face (odds ratio [OR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.49) and middle face (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.50) but had no significant effect on serious injury to the lower face (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.72-1.07).

Conclusions.  —Bicycle helmets offer substantial protection for the upper and mid face in addition to their known protection against head injuries. Helmets do not appear to offer any protection for the lower face.


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.