0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
ARTICLE |

A Multi-institutional Outbreak of Highly Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis:  Epidemiology and Clinical Outcomes

Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH; Lisa Fine Sherman, MPH; Khin Lay Maw, MBBS, MPH; Paula I. Fujiwara, MD, MPH; Jack T. Crawford, PhD; Beth Nivin, MPH; Victoria Sharp, MD; Dial Hewlett Jr, MD; Karen Brudney, MD; David Alland, MD; Barry N. Kreiswirth, PhD
JAMA. 1996;276(15):1229-1235. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03540150031027.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Objective.  —To investigate a multi-institutional outbreak of highly resistant tuberculosis and evaluate patient outcome.

Design.  —Epidemiologic investigation of every tuberculosis case reported in New York City.

Setting.  —Patients cared for at all public and nonpublic institutions from January 1, 1990, to August 1, 1993 (43 months).

Patients.  —We reviewed medical and public health records and conducted clinical, epidemiologic, drug susceptibility, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. A case was defined as tuberculosis in a patient with an isolate resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol hydrochloride, and streptomycin (and rifabutin, if sensitivity testing included it), and, if RFLP testing was done, a pattern identical to or closely related to strain W.

Main Outcome Measures.  —Patient survival and the conversion of sputum cultures from positive to negative.

Results.  —Of the 357 patients who met the case definition, 267 had identical or nearly identical RFLP patterns; isolates from the other 90 patients were not available for RFLP testing. Among these 267 patients, 86% were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, 7% were HIV-negative, and 7% had unknown HIV status. All-cause mortality was 83%. Epidemiologic linkages were identified for 70% of patients, of whom 96% likely had nosocomially acquired disease at 11 hospitals. Survival was prolonged among patients who recieved medications to which their isolate was susceptible, especially capreomycin sulfate, and among patients with a CD4+ T-lymphocyte count greater than 0.200×109/L (200/μL). Treatment with isoniazid and a fluoroquinolone antibiotic was also independently associated with longer survival.

Conclusions.  —This outbreak accounted for nearly one fourth of the cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the United States during a 43-month period. Most patients had nosocomially acquired disease, were infected with HIV, and unless promptly and appropriately treated, died rapidly. With appropriate directly observed treatment, especially combinations including an injectable medication, even severely immunocompromised patients had culture conversion and prolonged, tuberculosis-free survival.

Topics

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview

Figures

Tables

References

CME
Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();