The International Committee of MedicalJournal Editors (also known as the Vancouver Group) was founded in 1978 and currently comprises editors of 11 medical journals in six countries and two consultants.1 It publishes statements about how authors and editors of medical journals should behave.2 These statements are binding on no one, but are followed by more than 300 journals worldwide and represent all continents. Because many authors are confused about replicate submissions3,4 and because problems in this area are commonplace,5-7 the committee expanded, clarified, and strengthened its original statement at a meeting in Chicago on September8, 1993.
DUPLICATE OR REDUNDANT PUBLICATION
Most journals, especially primary source periodicals, do not wish to receive papers on work that has already been reported in a published article or is contained in another paper that has been submitted or accepted for publication elsewhere in print or in electronic media. This