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The Pathology of Congenital Heart Disease: A Personal Experience With More Than 6300 Congenitally Malformed Hearts

Frederick J. Schoen, MD, PhD
JAMA. 1996;276(14):1194. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03540140082035.
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As leaders in a small cadre of cardiovascular clinicians and pathologists with a comprehensive understanding of and experience in the morphology of congenital heart disease, Dr Bharati (over 25 years) and the late Dr Lev (over 60 years) have made immense contributions. This impressive, informative, and richly illustrated two-volume work of more than 1500 pages summarizes their experience with the evaluation of over 6300 hearts.

The book has two major sections. The first, only 64 pages long, has nine chapters describing general concepts of external and internal cardiac functional anatomy, embryology, terminology, and methods of examination. The second section has approximately 40 chapters of varying length and complexity, nearly all devoted to specific disease entities. The initial and largest disease-oriented chapter, on tetralogy of Fallot, has 66 pages and 154 illustrations, describing both simple and complex, acyanotic and cyanotic types, with individual consideration of the aorta, pulmonary tract, ventricular septal


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