We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Career Development for Women in Academic Medicine Multiple Interventions in a Department of Medicine

Linda P. Fried, MD, MPH; Clair A. Francomano, MD; Susan M. MacDonald, MD; Elizabeth M. Wagner, PhD; Emma J. Stokes, PhD; Kathryn M. Carbone, MD; Wilma B. Bias, PhD; Mary M. Newman, MD; John D. Stobo, MD
JAMA. 1996;276(11):898-905. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03540110052031.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objective.  —To determine the gender-based career obstacles for women in an academic department of medicine and to report the interventions to correct such obstacles (resulting from the evaluation) and the results of these interventions.

Design.  —Intervention study, before-after trial, with assessment of faculty concerns and perceived change through structured, self-administered questionnaires.

Setting.  —The Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md.

Participants.  —Full-time faculty.

Interventions.  —Multifaceted intervention from 1990 through 1995 to correct gender-based career obstacles reported by women faculty, including problem identification, leadership, and education of faculty, and interventions to improve faculty development, mentoring, and rewards and to reduce isolation and structural career impediments.

Main Outcome Measures.  —Retention and promotion of deserving women faculty, salary equity, quality of mentoring, decreased isolation from information and colleagues, integration of women faculty into the scientific community, and decreased manifestations of gender bias.

Results.  —Junior women were retained and promoted, reversing previous experience, with a 550% increase in the number of women at the associate professor rank over 5 years (from 4 in 1990 to 26 in 1995). Interim 3-year follow-up showed a 183% increase in the proportion of women faculty who expected they would still be in academic medicine in 10 years (from 23% [7/30] in 1990 to 65% [30/46] in 1993). One half to two thirds of women faculty reported improvements in timeliness of promotions, manifestations of gender bias, access to information needed for faculty development, isolation, and salary equity. Men also reported improvements in these areas.

Conclusions.  —The outcomes reported here indicate that it is possible to make substantive improvements in the development of women's careers, that an institutional strategy to this end can be successful in retaining women in academic medicine, and that such interventions are likely to benefit all faculty. Long-term interventions appear essential.


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.