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ARTICLE |

Association of Small Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles With the Incidence of Coronary Artery Disease in Men and Women

Christopher D. Gardner, PhD; Stephen P. Fortmann, MD; Ronald M. Krauss, MD
JAMA. 1996;276(11):875-881. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03540110029028.
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Published online

Objective.  —To investigate the prospective association of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle diameter with the incidence of fatal and nonfatal coronary artery disease (CAD).

Design.  —A nested case-control study.

Setting.  —Cases and controls were identified from a population-based sample of men and women combining all of the 5 cross-sectional surveys conducted from 1979 to 1990 of the Stanford Five-City Project (FCP).

Participants.  —Incident CAD cases were identified through FCP surveillance between 1979 and 1992. Controls were matched by sex, 5-year age groups, survey time point, ethnicity, and FCP treatment condition. The sample included 124 matched pairs: 90 pairs of men and 34 pairs of women.

Main Outcome Measures.  —LDL peak particle diameter (LDL size) was determined by gradient gel electrophoresis on plasma samples collected during the cross-sectional surveys (stored at 70°C for 5-15 years). Established CAD risk-factor data were available from FCP baseline measurements.

Results.  —LDL size was smaller among CAD cases than controls (mean ±SD) (26.17±1.00nm vs 26.68±0.90nm;P<.001).The association was graded across control quintiles of LDL size. The significant case-control difference in LDL size was independent of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non—HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C), triglyceride, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index, but was not significant after adjusting for the ratio of total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C (TC:HDL-C). Among all the physiological risk factors, LDL size was the best differentiator of CAD status in conditional logistic regression. However, when added to the physiological parameters above, the TC:HDL-C ratio was found to be a stronger independent predictor of CAD status.

Conclusion.  —LDL size was significantly smaller in CAD cases than in controls in a prospective, population-based study. These findings support other evidence of a role for small, dense LDL particles in the etiology of atherosclerosis.

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The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
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