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Global Climate Controversy-Reply

Jonathan Patz, MD, MPH; Paul R. Epstein, MD, MPH
JAMA. 1996;276(5):373-374. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03540050033018.
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In Reply.  —Dr Gray and colleagues fail to acknowledge recent findings by Huq et al,1 cited in our article, documenting detection of V cholerae in zooplankton using fluorescent antibody techniques. Therefore, their comment that V cholerae has not been identified from coastal phytoplankton is misleading because cholera has been detected using immunofluorescent screening where conventional culture methods failed, and (as we stated) V cholerae resides in zooplankton, not phytoplankton.The assertion that cholera cases were unrelated to algal blooms in Bangladesh overlooks the population dynamics between zooplankton and their food source, phytoplankton. Density of phytoplankton blooms falls dramatically as feeding zooplankton multiply (Anwaral Huq, coauthor of reference 3 of Gray et al). Cholera outbreaks almost always follow zooplankton blooms.2 Therefore, it is incorrect to associate a lag time with peak phytoplankton rather than zooplankton blooms.In response to Dr Singer, ice core records are not the primary source proving a


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