We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Perinatal HIV Infection and the Effect of Zidovudine Therapy on Transmission in Rural and Urban Counties

Susan A. Fiscus, PhD; Adaora A. Adimora, MD, MPH; Victor J. Schoenbach, PhD; Wilma Lim, MD; Ross McKinney, MD; David Rupar, MD; Jean Kenny, MD; Charles Woods, MD; Catherine Wilfert, MD
JAMA. 1996;275(19):1483-1488. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03530430027034.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objectives.  —To assess health care providers' identification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—exposed infants, to ascertain the prevalence of transplacental or oral zidovudine treatment among infants exposed to HIV, and to estimate the impact of zidovudine use on perinatal transmission in rural and urban North Carolina.

Design.  —Survey of North Carolina newborns tested for HIV infection in 1993 and 1994 compared with the number of anonymous HIV-positive childbearing women.

Setting.  —North Carolina hospitals, public health clinics, and private physicians' offices.

Main Outcome Measures.  —Rates of identification of HIV-exposed infants and of perinatal HIV-1 transmission, determined by HIV culture and polymerase chain reaction testing in the infants.

Results.  —The proportion of HIV-exposed children in North Carolina who were identified and tested increased from 60% in 1993 to 82% for all of 1994, and to more than 90% for the last quarter of 1994. The HIV-exposed infants born in rural counties were more likely to be recognized than those born in urban counties (P<.001). In 1994, most infants were evaluated relatively early in life: 39% by 1 week of age, 63% by 6 weeks, and 76% by 3 months. Among infants with recognized HIV exposure, transmission decreased significantly between 1993 and 1994, from 21% to 8.5%, respectively (P=.009). After the announcement of the results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076, zidovudine was given to 75% of HIV-positive women who delivered infants in North Carolina. Only 5.7% of infants who received any zidovudine became infected, compared with 18.9% of infants who received no zidovudine (P=.007).

Conclusions.  —Health care providers in North Carolina are identifying most of the state's HIV-seropositive pregnant women, treating them with zidovudine, and testing their infants soon after birth for HIV infection. The use of zidovudine in pregnant women and their infants has reduced perinatal HIV transmission in the state.(JAMA. 1996;275:1483-1488)


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.