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Vasculopathic Hepatotoxicity Associated With E-Ferol Syndrome in Low—Birth-Weight Infants

Kevin E. Bove, MD; Niki Kosmetatos, MD; Kathryn E. Wedig, MD; Donald J. Frank, MD; Stephen Whitlatch, MD; Victor Saldivar, MD; Joel Haas, MD; Carl Bodenstein, MD; William F. Balistreri, MD
JAMA. 1985;254(17):2422-2430. doi:10.1001/jama.1985.03360170062032.
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A fatal syndrome characterized by progressive clinical deterioration with unexplained thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, cholestasis, and ascites developed in certain infants throughout the United States who had received E-Ferol, an intravenous vitamin E supplement. We reviewed the clinical course of all 36 infants from one (index) nursery who had received E-Ferol, which contains 25 units per milliliter of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate solubilized with 9% polysorbate 80 and 1% polysorbate 20. The syndrome was recognized in eight of the 36 infants; affected infants had a lower birth weight (<1,200 g) and had received a higher total dose of E-Ferol for longer periods than the unaffected cases. We reviewed autopsy-derived tissue from 20 infants (six from the index nursery and 14 from three other collaborating nurseries) who had received the intravenous vitamin E preparation in a reported dose of 25 to 137 units/kg/day for six to 45 days between October 1983 and March 1984. The hepatic histology in the affected cases indicated a progressive injury characterized initially by Kupffer cell exfoliation, central lobular accumulation of cellular debris, and centrally accentuated panlobular congestion. Prolonged exposure to E-Ferol was associated with progressive intralobular cholestasis, inflammation of hepatic venules, and extensive sinusoidal veno-occlusion by fibrosis. We propose that vasculocentric hepatotoxicity is the basis for the observed clinical syndrome that represents the cumulative effect of one or more of the constituents of E-Ferol.

(JAMA 1985;254:2422-2430)


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