We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Tobacco Dependence and the Nicotine Patch Clinical Guidelines for Effective Use

Michael C. Fiore, MD, MPH; Douglas E. Jorenby, PhD; Timothy B. Baker, PhD; Susan L. Kenford
JAMA. 1992;268(19):2687-2694. doi:10.1001/jama.1992.03490190087036.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objective.  —A comprehensive review of transdermal nicotine treatment for tobacco dependence, with recommendations derived from the research literature.

Data Sources.  —English-language clinical trials.

Study Selection.  —Clinical trials using placebo-controlled, double-blind methodology (11 studies) with at least 6 months of follow-up after treatment (eight studies) and biochemical verification of smoking status.

Data Synthesis.  —Nicotine patches produce end-of-treatment smoking cessation rates that range from 18% to 77%; these rates are about twice those of placebo-treated subjects. Nicotine patches produced 6-month abstinence rates of 22% to 42%, while placebo patches produced quit rates of 5% to 28%. Nicotine patches appear to reduce some, but not all, nicotine withdrawal symptoms. For instance, while the patch reduces craving for cigarettes and negative moods, it does not appear to reduce hunger or weight gain. The clinical trials literature suggests that proper adjuvant smoking cessation counseling is crucial in determining successful long-term outcome with the nicotine patch, and suggests that 6 to 8 weeks of patch therapy may be an adequate duration for most patients.

Conclusions.  —Nicotine patches are an effective aid to tobacco dependence treatment. However, success rates vary greatly across research studies and may be influenced highly by the nature and intensity of adjuvant smoking cessation counseling. More research is needed to identify optimal duration, dosage, and individualization of patch therapy. The impact of nicotine patches (more than 5 million users with $1 billion in sales for 1992) also raises important ethical and public health issues.(JAMA. 1992;268:2687-2694)


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.