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HIV/AIDS Education and Prevention Programs For Adults in Prisons and Jails and Juveniles in Confinement Facilities—United States, 1994

JAMA. 1996;275(17):1306-1308. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03530410020010.
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Hammett TM, Widom R, Epstein J, Gross M, Sifre S, Enos T. 1994 Update: HIV/AIDS and STDs in correctional facilities . Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice/US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC, December 1995.
CDC.  Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in correctional facilities: a report of the National Institute of Justice and the American Correctional Association. MMWR 1986;35:195-9.
Widom R, Hammett TM. Research in brief: HIV/ AIDS and STDs in juvenile facilities . Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, April 1996.
CDC. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance, 1994 . Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC, September 1995.
Glaser JB, Greifinger RB.  Correctional health care: a public health opportunity. Ann Intern Med 1993;118: 139-45.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.7326/0003-4819-118-2-199301150-00010]]
Bureau of Justice Statistics. Correctional populations in the United States, 1991 . Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1993; publication no. NCJ-142729.
Mutter RC, Grimes RM, Labarthe D.  Evidence of intraprison spread of HIV infection. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:793-5.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1001/archinte.1994.00420070117013]]
Mahon N.  High risk behavior for HIV transmission in New York state prisons and city jails. Am J Public Health 1996 (in press).
Bureau of Justice Statistics . Correctional populations in the United States, 1993. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1995; publication no. NCJ-156241.
CDC.  Notification of syringe-sharing and sex partners of HIV-infected persons—Pennsylvania, 1993-1994. MMWR 1995;44:202-4.
In most states, offenders aged <18 years are handled by the juvenile justice system and confined in juvenile facilities; those aged <18 years are prosecuted in adult courts and incarcerated in prisons and jails. However, the cutoff age varies by state and even within some states on a case-by-case basis.
The sample of 36 city/county jail systems for adults was selected to represent systems with large inmate populations and to provide geographic diversity. All 36 systems were among the 50 largest in the United States in inmate population in 1994. The Washington, D.C., system was considered a city/county system.
The 50 city/county systems for juveniles selected for the survey included the largest confined populations in 1994 based on information provided by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
The NIJ/CDC questionnaire sought numbers of gonorrhea cases presumptively diagnosed and numbers of cases confirmed by laboratory findings during the preceding 12 months. Incidence rates for the 26 state juvenile systems providing the requested data were calculated based on the total of these two categories of cases. The reported means represent a simple average of the incidence rates in these 26 systems.

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